There are specific dates for some developments such as when the jetty was built at Coffs Harbour and the public hall was opened at Orara. With dairying the development was gradual. It is unlikely that the farmers had sufficient money or opportunity to buy a whole dairy herd. More likely they started with cows to provide milk for their own use, then with some surplus they could start selling milk/cream and the miners were a local market. People made butter for themselves. Then by breeding their own cattle the herd would gradually grow in size.

The proposal to establish a butter factory to process milk locally was a major undertaking. The challenge was to settle on a location and to ensure there were enough farmers committed supplying milk. Amandus did not want to wait so went ahead with his own separator to produce cream for sale. Note how the upgrade of the roads was ongoing and that the locals were involved in community projects.

Raleigh Sun (Bellingen, NSW : 1898 – 1918), Friday 10 March 1899, page 2


Our correspondent writes: — The weather here has been very showery for the past month. The crops look remarkably well and promise to be the best ever grown in this locality. The grass paddocks look splendid and stock are in splendid condition.

Dairying has a good footing here. Everyone is either, supplying or is preparing to supply milk to Mr. Hoschke, who has a separator, Mr. Hoschke deserves great credit for the money and energy he has expended, in starting such an important industry.

The mines are doing well; that is if one is to judge by the brilliant smiles which illuminate the faces of the popular mine-owners. I hear they have asked the Government for aid to sink deeper, and in all probability the aid will be granted.

The health of the district is very good. Measles appear[s] to be about, but very few folk have been attacked.

Mr. Geo. McCann is busy making the road between Mr. J. Ferrett’s and Mr. J. J. Boultwood’s. When this section is complete the whole length of the Orara roads will be carried through, and I presume that gravelling will be the nature of all future contracts. There is abundance of gravel handy, and it makes splendid roads when it is under 3-inch gauge.

The community will lose socially for some months to come, as I hear that Messrs. J. J. Boultwood and J. McGuigan are going to Bellingen to erect the Wesleyan parsonage. The gospel mission hall is almost completed and will be ready for use by Sunday next, Mr. Geo. Hoschke having made some alterations.

APA citation.  UPPER ORARA NEWS. (1899, March 10). The Raleigh Sun (Bellingen, NSW : 1898 – 1918), p. 2. Retrieved November 29, 2022, from

Cream Separator, owned by AALH and managed by George

A butter factory was opened at Karangi which is a neighbouring district to Upper Orara. This major step allowed the commercial sale of dairy produce as butter instead of cream. Butter would have been much easier to transport. Presumably the butter, apart from that sold locally, was taken from Karangi to Coffs Harbour for shipment to markets.

Raleigh Sun (Bellingen, NSW : 1898 – 1918), Friday 26 May 1899, page 2


Saturday last, May 20, was what may be justly termed a “red letter” day for Karangi, when the time at last arrived for the opening of a creamery and butter factory at that place. For a long time efforts have been made to get an industry of this kind started in some part of the Orara special area, but without success. One simple reason amongst others was, as is always usual in matters of this kind, that some (not all) wished the site to be “agin their own door.’

A few of the energetic farmers around Karangi however put their heads together, and decided to paddle their own canoe, bear the brunt of the battle, and erect a factory. It was decided to infuse new blood in a certain part of the management, with the result that up to the present the few persistent pioneers may well feel proud of what they have done.

A neat weather-board building with shingle roof and cemented floor has been erected on a piece of land donated by the late Colin Buchanan, and the machinery, De Laval separator, pumping gear, piping, etc., are all up to date, from the well-known firm of Wangli and Josephson, Sydney.

Shortly after 10 o’clock, Mr. James Denning, of the Queen’s record gold mine, after a few well-chosen remarks, called upon Mrs. James Buchanan, as the oldest resident of Karangi, to break the bottle of champagne and baptize the factory. Mrs. Buchanan pulled the cord, the bottle broke into a thousand fragments, started the machinery, and pronounced the Karangi Pioneer Butter Factory open.

A few gallons of milk were put through the separator, which does its work well; when all present adjourned to the luncheon table to partake of an enticing spread provided by the lady representatives of the Karangi Farmers’ Dairy Union.

Mr. John Lee, treasurer of the Union, occupied the chair, and Mr. Collard, of Coramba the vice-chair. Mr. James Denning in proposing the first toast, “Success to the Karangi’ Pioneer Butter Factory,” said that although he was not a farmer he felt proud of the honor of being entrusted to propose that toast. He hoped the Union would meet with the success they deserved for pushing on the dairying industry in this district.

The farmers deserved all credit for opening up the rich land of the Orara special area, and thought the Karangi farmers had taken the right steps in starting this industry. Seventeen years ago he had travelled through all this district prospecting for gold. It was then a howling wilder ness and would not feed a bandicoot ; but the farmers had now brought it to that state that it would support large s families.

Mr. John Lee, in responding, considered the start that had been made would be the salvation of the district. He mentioned a number of other places in the colony that had taken rapid strides in dairying. Here we had good land that grows abundance of grass, and a never-failing supply of good water, and although we had already been twitted by outsiders who would not join in the factory that the Union “would go down, our cows were no good,” he had ample proof from the new Babcock tester that we had as good dairying cows around Karangi as were to be found in older districts.

APA citation.  OPENING OF KARANGI BUTTER FACTORY. (1899, May 26). The Raleigh Sun (Bellingen, NSW : 1898 – 1918), p. 2. Retrieved December 9, 2022, from

The assumption is that the Hoschke separator continued to be used and that the cream was transported to the Karangi butter factory although the following article refers to the supply of milk. Up until the 1960’s some farmers had their own separators, fed the skim milk to pigs and sold cream to the nearest factory.

You can see in the following article how much activity there was in dairying. The farmers had tried all sorts of ways to utilise their farms with pigs, maize and poultry being some of the more successful ventures. However, dairying was the way to go and it remained so for well into the late 1900’s. Note the reference to ‘Hoschke and sons’ as the sons also had farms. Though they did allow some time for playing cricket of course.

Raleigh Sun (Bellingen, NSW : 1898 – 1918), Friday 13 October 1899, page 2


Our correspondent writes: — The weather has at last cleared up, and everyone is busy getting crops in. The continued wet in the early part of the season threw farmers behind, and there is very little corn as yet above ground. The rain, however, has benefited the dairymen, feed being plentiful.

The milk supply to the local factory is steadily increasing, Hoschke and Sons being the largest suppliers; in a short time they will have a splendid herd. Nearly all the residents here are going into the dairying industry.

The shareholders of the Advance Orara mine have had hard luck, having to bail out the shaft three times before they could get to work to raise stone. It was fortunate for them the pumping gear was a success, for it saved a lot of hard toil.

A very successful meeting (Mr. N. Watkin chairman) was held here on October 3 to arrange for a retention fund for Dr. Speece. Mr. J. J. Boultwood for south branch, Mr. Stockall for west branch , and Mr. J. McLeod, J.P., for the central part of the district, were appointed canvassers. Mr. A. L. Walsh is secretary (Mr. Kerr and Mr. McKinnon having resigned, their time being so much occupied with the dairying).

A cricket match was played at ‘The Cedars,’ (Mr. A. L. Walsh’s) on Saturday last between teams picked from Karangi and here, resulting in an easy win for Karangi. I will leave some other reporter to give the details. The first cup match starts on Saturday next at Coramba Plain between Coramba and Coff’s Harbor. My tip for the Best Cup is Glenreagh first, Coff’s Harbor second, Coramba third, Woolgoolga fourth, Karangi fifth. It is a pity the promoters do not arrange matters so that the genial Lower Bucca team is included.

APA citation  UPPER ORARA NEWS. (1899, October 13). The Raleigh Sun (Bellingen, NSW : 1898 – 1918), p. 2. Retrieved November 29, 2022, from